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Sunday, December 27, 2009

Artificial Brain

artificial brainArtificial Brain
Keyword: artificial brain, brain, otak buatan, otak palsu, otak manusia, human brain, operasi otak.


Artificial brain is the research to develop software and hardware that has cognitive abilities similar to the animal or human brain. The idea plays three important roles in science:
  1. An ongoing attempt by the neuroscientists to understand how the human brain works.
  2. A thought experiment in the philosophy of artificial intelligence, demonstrating that it is possible, in theory, to create a machine that has all the capabilities of a human being.
  3. A serious long term project to create strong AI (a machine as intelligent as a human being), as proposed by Ray Kurzweil and others.

Very different approaches have been popularly termed artificial brains by researchers or the popular press. Some approaches include artificial neurons on a parallel platform, such as e.g. the CAM Brain Machine. Another interesting approach of artificial brain development is based on Holographic Neural Technology (HNeT) non linear phase coherence/decoherence principles. The analogy has been made to quantum processes through the core synaptic algorithm which has strong similarities to the QM wave equation.

Now an artificial brain has been developed for the first time in Aston university in Birmingham, England. The researchers started the project on the premise that the dreaded disease Alzheimer's could be cured.


Brain Disorder

schizophreniaBrain Disorder
Keyword: brain deseases, brain disorder, gila, sakit otak, schizophrenia

History of the Scientific View on Schizophrenia as a Brain Disorder:
It has been suspected for over a century that schizophrenia and manic-depressive disorder (bipolar disorder) are disorders of the brain. In 1837, Dr. W.A.F. Browne, the best-known English psychiatrist of his generation, wrote: "Insanity, then, is inordinate or irregular, or impaired action of the mind, of the instincts, sentiments, intellectual, or perceptive powers, depending upon and produced by an organic change in the brain."

In that same year, Dr. Amariah Brigham, one of the founders of American psychiatry, also wrote that insanity "is now considered a physical disorder, a disease of the brain."

It would be 150 years, however, before these statements could be proven. Since the early 1980s, with the availability of brain imaging techniques and other developments in neuroscience, the evidence has become overwhelming that schizophrenia and manic-depressive disorder are disorders of the brain.

Additional research done during the past decade has revealed that schizophrenia is caused by a combination of genetic or biological predisposition as well as other factors such as prepregnancy factors, pregnancy stress, other prenatal factors, social stress, family stress or environmental stressors during a person's life. Research has now shown that children's and teen's brains are very sensitive to stress (up to 5 to 10 times more sensitive than adult brains) and can be damaged by frequent or ongoing stress.

To learn more about the causes of schizophrenia, and how to prevent it - read these two documents: Causes of Schizophrenia, Prevention of Schizophrenia.

A brief summary of some of the evidence that proves this point follows.

Significant Loss of Brain Gray Matter: Individuals with schizophrenia, including those who have never been treated, have a reduced volume of gray matter in the brain, especially in the temporal and frontal lobes. Recently neuroscientists have detected gray matter loss of up to 25% (in some areas). The damage started in the parietal, or outer, regions of the brain but spread to the rest of the brain over a five year period. Patients with the worst brain tissue loss also had the worst symptoms, which included hallucinations, delusions, bizarre and psychotic thoughts, hearing voices, and depression.

Please note that while there is significant loss of brain gray matter, this is not a reason to lose all hope. In recent (September, 2004) group of presentations and discussion we had with Dr. Daniel Weinberger and other leading National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) schizophrenia researchers, we learned that there are reasons to believe that this gray matter loss may be reversable. Moreover, the NIMH is currently researching a drug that seems to have potential for reversing the cognitive decline that is caused by schizophrenia, and there are many drug companies also now researching in this area. It is anticipated that we will see some significant announcements related to these develpments in the next few years.


Brain Implantation

brain implantationBrain Implantation
Keyword: brain, brain implantation, tanam otak, implantasi otak, operasi otak


Brain implants
, often referred to as neural implants, are technological devices that connect directly to a biological subject's brain - usually placed on the surface of the brain, or attached to the brain's cortex. A common purpose of modern brain implants and the focus of much current research is establishing a biomedical prosthesis circumventing areas in the brain, which became dysfunctional after a stroke or other head injuries. This includes sensory substitution, e.g. in vision. Other brain implants are used in animal experiments simply to record brain activity for scientific reasons. Some brain implants involve creating interfaces between neural systems and computer chips, which are part of a wider research field called brain-computer interfaces. (Brain-computer interface research also includes technology such as EEG arrays that allow interface between mind and machine but do not require direct implantation of a device.)
Neural-implants such as deep brain stimulation and Vagus nerve stimulation are increasingly becoming routine for patients with Parkinson's disease and clinical depression respectively, proving themselves as a boon for people with diseases which were previously regarded as incurable.

Brain Gym

brain gymBrain Gym
Keyword: Brain Gym, senam otak, olahraga otak, latihan otak, brain training


Brain Gym
is a commercial training program that claims that any learning challenges can be overcome by finding the right movements, the use of which will create new pathways in the brain. They claim that the repetition of the 26 Brain Gym movements "activates the brain for optimal storage and retrieval of information." Its theoretical foundation has been thoroughly discredited by the scientific community, who describe it as pseudoscience. Peer reviewed scientific studies into Brain Gym have found no significant improvement in general academic skills. Its claimed results have been put down to the placebo effect and the benefits of breaks and exercise. Its founder, Paul Dennison, has admitted that many of Brain Gym's claims are not based on good science, but on his "hunches". It is widely used in British state schools It is also offered to both children and adults in parts of the United States and Canada.


Brain Wave

brain waveBrain Wave
Keyword: brain, brain wave, gelombang otak, alpha wave, betha wave, theta wave, gelombang alfa, gelombang beta, gelombang teta

It is well known that the brain is an electrochemical organ; researchers have speculated that a fully functioning brain can generate as much as 10 watts of electrical power. Other more conservative investigators calculate that if all 10 billion interconnected nerve cells discharged at one time that a single electrode placed on the human scalp would record something like five millionths to 50 millionths of a volt. If you had enough scalps hooked up you might be able to light a flashlight bulb.

Even though this electrical power is very limited, it does occur in very specific ways that are characteristic of the human brain. Electrical activity emanating from the brain is displayed in the form of brainwaves. There are four categories of these brainwaves, ranging from the most activity to the least activity. When the brain is aroused and actively engaged in mental activities, it generates beta waves. These beta waves are of relatively low amplitude, and are the fastest of the four different brainwaves. The frequency of beta waves ranges from 15 to 40 cycles a second. Beta waves are characteristics of a strongly engaged mind. A person in active conversation would be in beta. A debater would be in high beta. A person making a speech, or a teacher, or a talk show host would all be in beta when they are engaged in their work.

The next brainwave category in order of frequency is alpha. Where beta represented arousal, alpha represents non-arousal. Alpha brainwaves are slower, and higher in amplitude. Their frequency ranges from 9 to 14 cycles per second. A person who has completed a task and sits down to rest is often in an alpha state. A person who takes time out to reflect or meditate is usually in an alpha state. A person who takes a break from a conference and walks in the garden is often in an alpha state.

The next state, theta brainwaves, are typically of even greater amplitude and slower frequency. This frequency range is normally between 5 and 8 cycles a second. A person who has taken time off from a task and begins to daydream is often in a theta brainwave state. A person who is driving on a freeway, and discovers that they can't recall the last five miles, is often in a theta state--induced by the process of freeway driving. The repetitious nature of that form of driving compared to a country road would differentiate a theta state and a beta state in order to perform the driving task safely.

Individuals who do a lot of freeway driving often get good ideas during those periods when they are in theta. Individuals who run outdoors often are in the state of mental relaxation that is slower than alpha and when in theta, they are prone to a flow of ideas. This can also occur in the shower or tub or even while shaving or brushing your hair. It is a state where tasks become so automatic that you can mentally disengage from them. The ideation that can take place during the theta state is often free flow and occurs without censorship or guilt. It is typically a very positive mental state.

The final brainwave state is delta. Here the brainwaves are of the greatest amplitude and slowest frequency. They typically center around a range of 1.5 to 4 cycles per second. They never go down to zero because that would mean that you were brain dead. But, deep dreamless sleep would take you down to the lowest frequency. Typically, 2 to 3 cycles a second.

When we go to bed and read for a few minutes before attempting sleep, we are likely to be in low beta. When we put the book down, turn off the lights and close our eyes, our brainwaves will descend from beta, to alpha, to theta and finally, when we fall asleep, to delta.

It is a well known fact that humans dream in 90 minute cycles. When the delta brainwave frequencies increase into the frequency of theta brainwaves, active dreaming takes place and often becomes more experiential to the person. Typically, when this occurs there is rapid eye movement, which is characteristic of active dreaming. This is called REM, and is a well known phenomenon.

When an individual awakes from a deep sleep in preparation for getting up, their brainwave frequencies will increase through the different specific stages of brainwave activity. That is, they will increase from delta to theta and then to alpha and finally, when the alarm goes off, into beta. If that individual hits the snooze alarm button they will drop in frequency to a non-aroused state, or even into theta, or sometimes fall back to sleep in delta. During this awakening cycle it is possible for individuals to stay in the theta state for an extended period of say, five to 15 minutes--which would allow them to have a free flow of ideas about yesterday's events or to contemplate the activities of the forthcoming day. This time can be an extremely productive and can be a period of very meaningful and creative mental activity.

In summary, there are four brainwave states that range from the high amplitude, low frequency delta to the low amplitude, high frequency beta. These brainwave states range from deep dreamless sleep to high arousal. The same four brainwave states are common to the human species. Men, women and children of all ages experience the same characteristic brainwaves. They are consistent across cultures and country boundaries.

Research has shown that although one brainwave state may predominate at any given time, depending on the activity level of the individual, the remaining three brain states are present in the mix of brainwaves at all times. In other words, while somebody is an aroused state and exhibiting a beta brainwave pattern, there also exists in that person's brain a component of alpha, theta and delta, even though these may be present only at the trace level.

It has been my personal experience that knowledge of brainwave states enhances a person's ability to make use of the specialized characteristics of those states: these include being mentally productive across a wide range of activities, such as being intensely focused, relaxed, creative and in restful sleep.

Tuesday, September 30, 2008

Brain Capacity

brain capacityBrain Capacity
Keyword: brain, Brain capacity, left brain, right brain, kapasitas otak, otak kanan, otak kiri

For those of you who are new to right brain learning, the importance of accessing both hemispheres of the brain is immense. In 1968, Dr. Roger Sperry published his ground-breaking discovery of two separately functioning hemispheres of the brain. The left brain learns in a conscious, logical, methodical way. The right brain learns in a subconscious, creative, intuitive way. This means that to support the whole-brain function, logic and intuition are equally important.

Two Hemispheres of the Brain:
1. Left Brain - Conscious thought, logical analysis, outer awareness, uses language, methods and rules.
2. Right Brain - Subconscious thought, emotional reaction, inner awareness, uses intuition, creativity, music

Ever wonder why science tells us that we only use 3% of our brain? We believe it is because this is the amount of information available to most of us consciously. The rest is locked up within the subconscious mind. Most of the time, we work out of our conscious left hemisphere of the brain. In this mode, we tackle the daily stresses of life, but without access to the incredible storehouse of memory, intuition and creativity found within the subconscious right hemisphere of the brain.

When the right brain is understood in education, children and adults alike are encouraged to access the creative, intuitive side of the brain for solutions to answers. The right brain is responsible for photographic memory, speed reading, speed listening, automatic mental processing, mass-memory, multiple language acquisition, computer-like math calculation, creativity in movement, music and art and intuitive insight.

What is the difference between children and adults accessing the right brain? Young children access the right brain quite naturally. In fact, they use the right brain subconscious in advance of the logical, doubting left-brain. They act on creative, intuitive impulses. Adults, on the other hand, largely work out of the left-brain and need a lot of help in accessing this innocent, intuitive part of themselves. But, everyone has these genius-like capabilities. And they're hidden within the right hemisphere of the brain. The teaching focus is slightly different depending upon the age of the student.

Photographic Memory, Speed Reading/Listening, Imaging
Think of your brain as a camera. You are continually taking a mental photograph of everything you see--second by second, day after day. These picture images are always there--in the right brain--neatly filed and tucked away for later use. This auto-recording process is simultaneously happening through all the other senses--sound, smell, taste and touch. The right brain's mass-memory, automatic processing capability allows the brain to file, organize and store these images instantly.

One exciting way to utilize this function in learning is through the use of flashcards. Flashing images to yourself or your child quickly--at a rate of one image per second--allows you to input a large number of facts, stress-free, within a short period of time. Access to these mental images (memory!) comes quickly and effortlessly through deep relaxation techniques.

Memory can be enhanced through many exciting left and right brain linking techniques. You can also strengthen the photographic imaging (visualization) and subconscious memory intake through a unique right-brain "after-imaging" process. Another way of stimulating your child's brain development process is by using the abacus for mental math education. When children use both hands to move abacus beads in arithmetic calculations, it stimulates cells in both the right and left sides of the brain. This results in quick, balanced whole brain development, leading to greater mental capacity. Using the abacus, a child can do all arithmetic calculations up to 10 digits without relying on an electronic calculator.

Dhaval Shrimankar is a private tutor and focuses on researching mental math techniques. For more information can be found at the nurtureminds blog and http://www.nurtureminds.com

Magnetic Brain

magnetic brainMagnetic Brain
Keyword: brain, edelson, lazy eye, magnetic brain, magnetic pulse, otak magnet

Magnetic Pulses to Brain Improve Lazy Eye in Adults

By Ed Edelson
HealthDay Reporter
FRIDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) — Correcting lazy eye in adults is supposed to be impossible, but researchers report they have been able to do that — at least partially and temporarily — by beaming magnetic pulses into the brain.

Someone with lazy eye — ophthalmologists call it amblyopia — has poor vision because one eye is weaker than the other. Early treatment often has a child wearing a patch over the strong eye to strengthen the weaker one, but the problem has been thought to be untreatable in adulthood. Most of the estimated 6 million Americans with amblyopia are adults.

"We know now that visual loss is caused by poor processing in the cortex," said Benjamin Thompson, a postdoctoral fellow in the ophthalmology department at McGill University in Canada, and a member of the group reporting on the new method in the July 22 issue of Current Biology. "Treatment usually addresses the problem with the eye, not with the cortex."

The study was prompted in part by research at a number of institutions showing that changes can occur in the adult brain, which until recently was thought to be impossible. The cortex is a vital part of the brain, involved in vision among other functions. Work by other researchers has shown that transcranial magnetic stimulation, in which a rapid train of magnetic impulses is delivered to the brain through a hand-held coil placed on the scalp, has been effective in stroke rehabilitation and is being tested against depression.

When it was tried on nine adults with amblyopia, 15 minutes of magnetic stimulation improved the sensitivity of the weaker eye temporarily, Thompson said. In visual tests, they were able to see finer details than before the treatment. "We were surprised by how well it worked," he said. "Vision in the amblyopic eye improved for at least 20 minutes after transcranial magnetic stimulation."

It was admittedly a small trial, but "one of the issues we were addressing was whether amblyopia could be treated in adults," Thompson said. "The adult brain doesn't have the same capacity for change as in children." There are two ways to exploit the finding, and the McGill group plans to try both of them, Thomson said. One route is to use multiple bouts of transcranial stimulation.

"We've only tried a single dose so far in our study," he said. "Now, we can look at the effect of repeated doses. In depression, it seems they can have an effect."The other possibility is to use magnetic stimulation to prime the brain for a rehabilitation program, a training regimen in which adults are asked to perform a series of visual tasks. Recent studies have indicated that such a perceptual training program can improve vision in amblyopic eyes.

"We will also have a parallel project, a training regime with stimuli to both eyes, higher-contrast stimuli to the amblyopic eye," Thompson said. "We hope that repeated exposure will bring improvement." The report is one of several indicating that the adult brain has more capacity for change than had been thought, said Dr. Robert Cykiert, a clinical associate professor of ophthalmology at New York University.

Lazy eye occurs because the proper connections between the eye and the cortex do not form early in life, Cykiert explained. "We thought that if the connections do not form by age 10 or so, it is too late." The McGill study indicates otherwise, he noted. "The study has very preliminary results, but obviously this may lead to other related or similar treatments that may have a more lasting effect," Cykiert said. "What we might be able to do is to allow people with lazy eye to have treatments that stimulate that part of the brain."


SOURCES: Benjamin Thompson, Ph.D., postdoctoral fellow, ophthalmology department, McGill University, Montreal; Robert Cykiert, clinical associate professor, ophthalmology, New York University, New York City; July 22, 2008, Current Biology

Brain Speed

brain speedBrain Speed
Keyword: brain speed, brain up, mind fit, kecepatan otak

How to get your brain up to speedCold meat and chocolate will get your mind fit ... and sex is handy too, according to a new bookDenis Campbell, health correspondent The Observer, Sunday December 2 2007 Article historyForget Sudoku, crossword puzzles and computer games. If you really want to train your brain, then eat dark chocolate, have plenty of sex and follow the Scandinavian example of having cold meat for breakfast.

The growing numbers of people who are trying to strengthen their mental ability through 'brain training' should also avoid cannabis, watching soap operas, hanging out with serial complainers or pursuing fat-free diets, according to a new book on getting 'brain-fit'.

Many of the suggestions in Teach Yourself Training Your Brain are surprising, such as cuddling a baby, cheating at school, reading out loud and doing your university degree in business studies. Co-authors Terry Horne and Simon Wootton say their recommendations are based on and backed by the latest research by leading experts around the world.

'For decades we have thought that the cognitive capacity of our brains is genetically determined, whereas it's now clear that it's a lifestyle choice. What we eat and drink, how we learn at school and what type of moods we have are all crucial,' said Horne, a business lecturer at the University of Central Lancaster and an authority on thinking and learning.

'People can make lifestyle choices that will not only prevent what used to be seen as an inevitable decline in cognitive [ability] after the age of 17 - something that IQ tests seemed to bear out - but will constantly increase our cognitive capacity throughout our adult lives. Our far-reaching suggestions will empower people to develop their cognitive capacity or just let it decline.'

The book details the most up-to-date thinking in science about how diet, the environment, stress and other aspects of modern life affect our mental capacity and distils them in the form of chunks of advice as well as exercises. It also points out that of the seven different chemical reactions that the brain undergoes in the sexual process, from contemplating intercourse to achieving orgasm, four help the thinking process. The ensuing increase in levels of the 'trust' hormone, oxytocin, for example, increases readiness to think of novel or risky solutions.

Similarly, the post-coital rise in serotonin levels aids both creative thinking and calm, logical decision-making. The authors praise the plethora of useful elements in dark chocolate, such as magnesium and antioxidant flavonols, which benefit everything from the supply of oxygen to the brain to the reduction of the chances of brain damage through a stroke.

The book comes as more and more Britons are spending increasing sums on a fast-expanding market in books, DVDs, subscription websites and computer games which claim to supercharge people's memory to improve their performance at work, enhance their brain's ability to store information and ward off the effects of dementia.

Nintendo's Brain Age electronic brain training game, which includes memory, number and intelligence tests, has sold 10 million copies globally. In the United States, some insurance companies have begun giving older clients computer software programmes featuring such exercises to encourage them to stay as mentally sharp as possible. And some nursing homes there have set up 'brain gyms' for the same purpose.

Horne believes that many Britons need to make dramatic changes to their lifestyles to increase their cognitive capacity because of the switch to a 'knowledge economy' from one based on manual labour, and because of the fast-expanding number of over-65s. Happiness, confidence and an optimistic nature help the brain, he added.

'So mix with people who make you laugh, have a good sense of humour or who share the same interests as you, and avoid people who whinge, whine and complain, as people who are negative will make you depressed, which means you won't achieve things,' said Horne. The book recommends that, instead of trying to find perfect happiness, people should instead seek a new concept the authors have called BLISS, which involves Body-based pleasure, Laughter, Involvement, Satisfaction and Sex, all of which enable the brain to think well.

Most people use only three to four per cent of their total supply of brain cells. But research among undergraduates has shown that those following the book's advice can experience a big enough increase in cognitive fitness to make the difference between getting a top job and a merely average one, said Horne. Is this the recipe for a sharp mind? Cheating

Children should not do homework on their own. Their minds will function better if they have help from parents or work with classmates. Eating the right food. Have eggs, fish or cold meat at breakfast. Stick to protein-based foods at lunchtime such as oily fish with dark green vegetables. Avoid bread, pasta or pizza and drink tea, ideally green or herbal, not coffee. Snack on nuts, not biscuits or other sweet things. Ideally, eat carbohydrates in the evenings only. Avoid caffeine, alcohol and red meat.

Speaking aloud. The old practice of getting pupils to speak in front of their class helps the brain because of the repetition involved. Adults can boost their memory by counting aloud to 99 in threes as fast as they can.

Mind Acceleration

mind accellerationMind Acceleration
Keyword: brain acceleration, brain speed, mind acceleration

This neural accelerator is a proven cognitive training methodology that will set fire to your nerve fibers, resulting in the onset of overwhelming mental change. You'll be quickly torn from your current fabric of reality and jolted into a new mode of existence, as you realize the following benefits that the Infinity Mind System can bring to you:

Accelerate neural transmission, amplify IQ, increase the brains performance levels, develop greater mental abilities and speed up information processing times. Build more neuronal connections and dendrites throughout your brain, giving you the mental resources to think quicker, think about more things at once, think more in depth, think more clearly, think more correctly, think more effortlessly and think with greater result.

Multiply your brain's glial cell count, one of the most important biological determinants of intelligence. How important are glial cells? When scientists completed their investigation of Albert Einstein’s brain, they came to one unified conclusion: he had 72% more glial cells than the average person.

Sharply improve your creativity, imagination, ingenuity, intuition, inventive ability and capacity for innovation. Greatly increase your odds of becoming the next literary phenom, producing the next Hollywood blockbuster, designing the next cutting-edge electronic gadget or making the next major scientific discovery.

Ignite the dormant regions of your brain and experience drastic improvements in visual and spatial ability. Philosophical, theoretical and abstract thinking will feel natural and easy. Expand memory storage. Remember facts and details with renewed ease. Learn how to enter the ideal state of mind for learning, memorizing and performing important mental tasks. Develop the high mental capacity to master any skill, achieve any grade and gain entry into any profession. This neural accelerator will make you a stronger student, working professional and a greater force in todays knowledge economy. Up your analytical skill, logic handling abilities and talent for rational reasoning.

Develop the elaborate mental network to easily handle mathematical equations, formulas and complex calculations in your head. Greatly improve your verbal skills and gain a million dollar vocabulary. Masterfully communicate your ideas and thoughts resulting in strengthened persuasion and negotiation powers. Miles deep, underneath craggy rock and layers of granite, lies a vault of precious stone and rock; a bounty of natural wonder--an infinite resource of diamond and gold. With the Infinity Mind System, open your mind, and mine this precious resource you hold deep within. Open your mind and let your authentic genius fly forth.

Theory of Memory

memoryTheory of Memory
Keyword:brain memory, memory, theory of memory, memori, otak memori

Brain memory This online book of the Global Cognitive Theory is dedicated to memory. This is the second main brain function or better said, the other side of the same coin that represents human brain. Firstly, the different layers or strata in which we think memory is structured are stated; secondly, some of the ways intelligence (as the memory manager) manages information are analysed.

In another section, the interaction between the capacity for storing information of the brain and the capacity for managing this storage are investigated. Within reason, some complementary effects will occur between the two. The overall efficiency in the management of information will therefore be somewhat more complicated to study than that of intelligence.

Consequently, the empirical study of the structural facets and their possible genetic nature will be fairly more complicated, even if we were to have precise methods of evaluation for the power of memory.

The scientific method works fine in general, but it works much better in its developmental phase than in its phase of general acceptance. All types of social interests affect the last phase, from the realm of sociology as in the case of Darwin’s theory, to the technician nature as in the case of the Theory of Relativity.

The last item of the related links is The EDI Study about Evolution and Design of Intelligence, a complete statistical survey on the heritability of intelligence performed on the fieldwork database of the Young Adulthood Study, 1939-1967

This statistical study is an empirical research about some considerations of the Global Cognitive Theory related with the brain and evolution, in particular the definition of intelligence. The results of the statistical survey The EDI Study regarding an elegant intelligence show some important considerations: The hereditary nature of relational intelligence is confirmed. The genetic information with less intellectual potential is the significant one, as the GTCEL states regarding the concept of conditional intelligence. Likewise, it seems that the main functions of intelligence, or those evolving faster, are fairly concentrated in only one chromosome.

The most innovative element of this work on cognitive psychology is undoubtedly the section relating to simulation. This section contains the explanation of how the artificial intelligence quotient vectors are generated by using the previsions of the new theory of evolution; they practically behave like the variables that were actually observed, in despite of the intrinsic complexity involved.

As if that were not enough, with the due caution this subject deserves, the existence of a finalistic or teleological evolution is scientifically proven to agree with that indicated by the General Theory of Conditional Evolution of Life. Given that the current results in this book suggest a fairly radical change from the common opinions held by the majority of the scientific community and society, the logical deduction is that more extensive studies on cognitive psychology using the same methodology need to be performed.

An example of further exploration of this study is found in the section that has been added subsequently, which is related to partner choice and intelligence. In this section a hypothesis regarding a concrete requisite of the acceptable limit of the difference in intelligence when forming a couple, is confirmed and simultaneously reinforces the model's overall coherence. In fact, the requirement refers to the unconscious choice of an unknown intelligence for current cognitive psychology.